What types of lithium ion batteries material development now? Our mobile phones and laptop computers are dependent upon long lasting batteries to allow us to work and live efficiently. Increasingly, automobiles are relying on improved batteries as a secondary power source to gasoline and also as the sole energy source in full electric vehicles. Solar energy is made more economical by storage of energy in batteries.
Lithium ion batteries are composed of a cathode, anode, electrolyte, and separator. Cathode materials include lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4), Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2), lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (also known as “NMC”) (LiNiMnCoO2), lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (LiNiCoAlO2), and lithium titanate. Anode materials are typically graphite. Separators are typically microporous polypropylene or polyethylene film. And electrolytes are typically lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) in ethylene carbonate (EC).
Lithium Manganese Oxide has a moderate specific power, moderate specific energy, and a moderate level of safety when compared to the other types of lithium ion batteries. It has the added advantage of a low cost. The downsides are its low performance and low lifespan. It is usually used in medical devices and power tools.
Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide has two major advantages as compared to the other batteries. The first one is its high specific energy which makes it desirable in electric powertrains, electric vehicles and electric bikes. The other is its low cost. It is moderate in terms of specific power, safety, lifespan and performance when compared to the other lithium-ion batteries. It can be optimised to either have a high specific power or a high specific energy.
Lithium Iron Phosphate only has one major disadvantage when compared to other types of lithium-ion batteries and that is its low specific energy. Other than that, it has a moderate to high rating in all the other characteristics. It has high specific power, offers a high level of safety, has a high lifespan and comes at a low cost. The performance of this battery is also moderate. It is often employed in electric motorcycles and other applications that require a long lifespan and high level of safety.
Lithium Titanate offers high safety, high performance and a high lifespan which are very important features every battery should have. Its specific energy is low compared to the five other lithium-ion batteries but it compensates for this with a moderate specific power. The only major disadvantage of lithium titanate as compared to the other lithium-ion batteries is its extremely high cost. Another important feature of this battery worthy of mention is its remarkably fast recharge time. It can be used for storing solar energy and creating smart grids.
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